Grifonul ca simbol militar. Mitologie si heraldica (I)

As when a gryphon through the wilderness
With winged course, o’er hill or moory dale,
Pursues the Arimaspian, who by stealth
Had from his wakeful custody pur loined
The guarded gold; so eagerly the Fiend
O’er bog or steep, through strait, rough, dense, or rare,
With head, hands, wings, or feet, pursues his way,
And swims, or sinks, or wades, or creeps, or flies.

Jumatate vultur, jumatate leu, protector al comorilor, al cunoasterii si al Copacului Vietii, fiinta inteligenta si curajoasa, grifonul, cel care se spune ca infrunta orice pericol si nu accepta captivitatea.


Astazi fiintele hibride ni se par ciudate. In mitologie insa, ele sunt foarte frecvente.

Zeii au fost multa vreme reprezentati cu caracteristici hibride.

Chnoubis/Xnoubis, Zeitatea Solara egipteana:

Zervan Akarana/Æon, Zeitatea Primordiala, a Infinitului,Timpului si Destinului la persani:

Abraxas/Avrazax, Zeitatea Primordiala in Gnosticism:

Sabazios, o Zeitate Solara la traci:

Ea/SUHUR.MASH Zeitate sumeriana:

Zu, o alta Zeitate sumeriana:

Quetzalcoatl, Zeitatea Suprema la azteci:

Glycon:

Pasul urmator a fost reprezentarea zeilor prin adaugarea unui chip uman, desi trupul nu era in totalitate omenesc:

Apoi si chipul si trupul au devenit omenesti, desi s-au pastrat aripile:

Mitra/Phanes:

Aripile (desfasurate sau stranse) sunt foarte prezente in heraldica si in mitologie, evident in primul rand in reprezentarile pasarilor (vulturi, pajure, soimi etc) dar pot fi prezente si individual, cand simbolizeaza protectia si legatura cu Cerul.

Heruvimii, cei 7 Apkallu trimisi sa raspandeasca cunoasterea in lume si ingerii cazuti din Cartea lui Enoh (7 dintre care i-au invatat pe oameni faurirea armelor, machiajul, astronomia, vrajile sau astrologia) au cu totii aripi.

Caulul, un alt simbol solar, apare si el adesea cu aripi, insotind zeii:

Grifon inseamna deci jumatate vultur, jumatate leu. Sa vedem ce simbolizeaza vulturul si leul.

Vulturul, o clasa generica din care fac parte mai multe pasari de prada, este un simbol al puterii si al actiunii.

Atat Zeus cat si Ra sunt asociati cu vulturii.

Zeus cu fulgerul:

Ra/Horus cu ankh in mana:

Ra , Zeu Solar, este asociat si cu soimul.

Leul este simbolul curajului.

Leii apar alturi de Cybele, de Inanna/Ishtar sau la Nemrut Dagi, la Micene, la Al Hillah si mai tarziu la Venetia:

Lei apar si pe stemele Taratului Bulgaro-Vlah si Olteniei.

Fiintele celste lamassu, asemanatoare Heruvinilor apar uneori cu trup de taur, precum Taurul Cosmic, alteori cu trup de leu, asemanator Sfixului.

In Venetia iamassu a fost transformat in leu inaripat:

La Perugia, Leul Inaripat devenise deja Grifon:

Am ajuns la subiect: grifonul.

Zu/Ankzu apare asemanatoare unui grifon in reprezentarea in care Marduk se pregateste s-o loveasca cu fulgerul pentru ca furase  ṭuppi šimāti.

Scena este asemanatoare altor scene din mitologie:

Apkallu este reprezentat tot ca un grifon:

Grifonul apare si alaturi de Apollo, Orfeu sau Dyonysos.

Apare insa  indeosebi infatisat luptandu-se cu arimaspii veniti sa fure aurul, un popor mitic cu un singur ochi, care traia in Muntii  Rhipaion (identificati de unii autori cu Muntii Carpati):

 

Mentiunile referitoare la grifoni si la arimaspi sunt destul de multe in istorie (vezi nota).

Grifonii au aparut si pe coiful de la Cotofenesti, pe alte coifuri dacice si pe Vasul de la Gundestrup:

Baietii de la SIE au adoptat grifonul ca simbol, iar pe site-ul lor se gaseste o frumoasa descriere a simbolisticii (pacat ca destui dintre ei nu s-ar zice ca au citit-o):

Este printre singurele sigle de profil care contine Crucea. Cheile sunt purtate si de Zurvan, Hecate sau Ianus si reprezinta si cunoasterea si legatura cu lumile subtile:

In Europa mai exista doar un serviciu de informatii care are ca simbol grifonul, cel din Estonia.

MI 5 are ca simbol un leu de mare inaripat, nu un grifon.

Trebuie notat ca primele reprezentari ale grifonului au fost asemanatoare cu cele ale dragonului, o alta fiinta zburatoare incarcata de semnificatii in mitologie si heraldica si prezenta chiar pe steagul Tarii Galilor (Y Ddraig Goch).

Dragonul a fost si stindardul militar al dacilor, draco fiind legat si de Cavalerii Danubieni/Cavalerul Trac/Mitraism si preluat apoi de romani de unde a ajuns in Occident.

In Crestinism, din Cavalerii Danubieni si draco a rezultat Sf. Gheorghe:

A existat si un ordin militar (Ordinul Dragonului) care a preluat forma Cavalerilor Danubieni:

Forma fusese preluata inainte si de romani in religie:

Herodotus, Histories 4. 13. 1 :
“There is also a story related in a poem by Aristeas son of Kaüstrobios, a man of Prokonnesos. This Aristeas, possessed by Phoibos [Apollon], visited the Issedones; beyond these (he said) live the one-eyed Arimaspoi (Arimaspians), beyond whom are the Grypes (Griffins) that guard gold, and beyond these again the Hyperboreoi (Hyperboreans), whose territory reaches to the sea. Except for the Hyperboreoi, all these nations (and first the Arimaspoi) are always at war with their neighbors; the Issedones were pushed from their lands by the Arimaspoi, and the Skythians by the Issedones.”

Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 802 ff. (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
“[Prometheus warns the wandering maiden Io:] But now listen to another and a fearsome spectacle. Beware of the sharp-beaked hounds of Zeus that do not bark, the Grypes (Griffins), and the one-eyed (monôpoi) Arimaspoi (Arimaspians), mounted on horses, who dwell about the flood of Plouton’s (Pluto’s) stream that flows with gold. Do not approach them.”

Herodotus, Histories 3. 116. 1 (trans. Godley) (Greek historian C5th B.C.) :
“But in the north of Europe there is by far the most gold. In this matter again I cannot say with assurance how the gold is produced, but it is said that one-eyed men called Arimaspoi (Arimaspians) steal it from Grypes (Griffins). The most outlying lands, though, as they enclose and wholly surround all the rest of the world, are likely to have those things which we think the finest and the rarest.”

Herodotus, Histories 4. 27. 1 :
“Of these too, then, we have knowledge; but as for what is north of them, it is from the Issedones that the tale comes of the one-eyed men [Arimaspoi] and the Grypes (Griffins) that guard gold; this is told by the Skythians (Scythians), who have heard it from them; and we have taken it as true from the Skythians, and call these people by the Skythian name, Arimaspoi (Arimaspians); for in the Skythian tongue arima is ‘one’, and spou is the ‘eye’.”

Herodotus, Histories 4. 79. 1 :
“He had in the city of the Borysthenites [in Asia Minor] a spacious house, grand and costly (the same house I just mentioned), all surrounded by Sphinxes and Grypes (Griffins) worked in white marble.”

Herodotus, Histories 4. 152. 4 :
“The Samians took six talents, a tenth of their profit, and made a bronze vessel with it, like an Argolic cauldron, with Grypes’ (Griffins’) heads projecting from the rim all around; they set this up in their temple of Hera, supporting it with three colossal kneeling figures of bronze, each twelve feet high.”

Ctesias, Indica (summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 72) (trans. Freese) (Greek historian C4th B.C.) :
“There is also gold [in India], not found in rivers and washed, as in the river Paktolos, but in many large mountains which are inhabited by Grypes (Griffins). These are four-footed birds as large as a wolf, their legs and claws resembling those of a lion; their breast feathers are red, those of the rest of the body black. Although there is abundance of gold in the mountains, it is difficult to get it because of these birds.

Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 24. 6 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
“Grypas (Griffins), Aristeas of Prokonnesos [Greek poet C7th B.C.] says in his poem, fight for the gold with the Arimaspoi (Arimaspians) beyond the Issedones. The gold which the Grypas (Griffins) guard, he says, comes out of the earth; the Arimaspoi are men all born with one eye; Grypas are beasts like lions, but with the beak and wings of an eagle.”

Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 31. 2 :
“At Prasiai [in Attika] is a temple of Apollon. Hither they say are sent the first-fruits of the Hyperboreans, and the Hyperboreans are said to hand them over to the Arimaspoi (Arimaspians), the Arimaspoi to the Issedones, from these the Skythians bring them to Sinope, thence they are carried by Greeks to Prasiai, and the Athenians take them to Delos.”

Pliny the Elder, Natural History 4. 88 (trans. Rackham) (Roman encyclopedia C1st A.D.) :
“Along the [Black Sea] coast [of Europe], as far as the river Tanais [the Don], are the Maeotae [a Skythian tribe] . . . and last of all in the rear of the Maeotae are the Arimaspi (Arimaspians). Then come the Ripaean Mountains [perhaps the Carpathians] and the region called Peterophorus, because of the feather-like snow continually falling there . . . Behind these mountains and beyond Aquilo [Boreas the North Wind] there dwells–if we can believe it–a happy race of people called the Hyperboreans.”

Theoi.com

http://www.focusblog.ro/2012/06/grifonul-ca-simbol-militar-mitologie-si-heraldica-i/

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